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Paleo 1   Page 2   Page 3. Archaic 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5   Page 6. Other Periods 1    Page 2    Page 3 Page 4   Page 5. Flint Tools Page 1   Page 2   Page 3   Page 4   Page 5. Columbia River 1 Page 2   Page 3   Page 4   Page 5. Far West 1   Page 2   Page 3 Page 4   Page 5   Page 6      Page 7.

Pacific NorthWest Page 1  Page 2. Bone Tools Page 1. Old World Artifacts   Page 2. Field Grade Page 1   Page 2. How To Find Arrowheads. We also offer a wide-range of Ancient Native American Indian artifacts and arrowheads for sale.

For the oldest of the old Indian artifacts, relics and arrowheads, please visit our Jeux casino book of ra Pages by click here jeux casino book of ra erst prospectus casino supermarché Sie Paleo link on the left.

Our Archaic Page also has some outstanding ancient arrowheads and relics dating back as far as years ago. Please let us know if you have anything of educational interest to share with others on this page. For more ancient Native American Indian artifacts, relics and arrowheads, you can gaming partners our friends jeux casino book of ra clicking on their links at the bottom of our home page.

A nice Pelican from Texas: A "Mammoth Killer" Western Clovis from California: A Whopper Chopper from the Santa Fe River in Florida: When Bone Meets Stone: A Plainview is a Plainview Tools evolvement click to see more the Ages: The following periods or eras are termed "the Desert Traditions" in the Western United States: What does BP mean? Scientific and other Terminology Explained.

Greg Perino out-of-print BOOK OFFERING We have a limited supply of the out-of-print books titled "Selected Preforms, Points and Knives of the North American Indians" written by Jeux casino book of ra Perino, who was considered by many to be "The Master" in jeux casino book of ra artifact authenticating world.

These can be ordered by simply clicking on the email link below, and by sending the email. You don't have to enter anything in the body jeux casino book of ra the email You will be contacted by email to complete the order: ALL of the Volume 2 books were stored in the author's garage for more than 10 machine happen they as wins slot, and all of these have some very slight, spotty "age discoloration" to the outer edges of some of the pages Volume 3 starts with the Acatta check this out type and ends with the Zora type, with a total of point types covered.

Some of those included are Armijo, bear arrow, belen, cobbs triangular, dane sharkstooth, frederick, folsom unfluted, glendo, jeff, kirk, oxbow, pedernales, pinwah, pulaski, st marion, steiner, tulare lake, and trujilo.

An article jeux casino book of ra "Un-finished" Tools: I acquired the piece shown above, and I admired the "micro-flaking" on this knife's edge, and I wondered, what in the world would have prevented the ancient artisan from "completing his work" on what would have been a most beautiful piece I kept turning the question over and over in my mind His answer somewhat astounded me They did no more and no less than what was necessary to accomplish their goal of survival or to accomplish the immediate task at hand.

They constantly lived "in the present", a lesson we can learn from. So, this is a "finished" leaf blade, in as much as was needed at the time. When the edges became dull, the blade would be further "worked" as necessary, to once again create a sharp cutting edge. With this new knowledge, I had a different perspective on other artifacts which I found, and which are jeux casino book of ra below. The first is a butchering blade, the second is a Monterey chert hand-axe. Folsom Point Technology Explained.

Pecking Stones - The difference examined. What were Paleo Crescents used for? I believe that these were used as a mini-sickle to article source the bottoms of the reeds, and then one of the ends of the crescent was inserted into the hole at one end of the reed in order to slit the reed into finer strands.

The reason I think that the crescents were hafted in the middle is because almost all crescents have centers which are ground smooth for hafting, both on the concave side as well as the convex jeux casino book of ra. Mineralization explained, what is it and what does it jeux casino book of ra like? How Clovis points were made.

How To Professionally "Label" Your Artifacts     Materials Needed: These are obtainable at just about any art supply store, and can even be ordered on-line over the internet       1 Small calligraphy pen holder Jeux casino book of ra termed a "quill" pen     1 or more, as these do tend to wear out very fine calligraphy pen tip, also known as "nibs".

I use a numberbut don't take this as gospel truth, as other sizes may produce more favorable results for you. Later I got smart and took a friend's advice, specifically, I now label artifacts with 2 numbers, separated by a "dot".

The first number indicates the number of the Artifact "Log Book" which contains the information about the artifact, and the second number is the sequential number of the artifact within this log book. This method is much simpler and allows me to start with artifact 1 every time I start a brand new log book. This prevents artifact numbers from becoming too long to fit on the relic itself. It also makes locating an artifact MUCH easier, as with the jeux casino book of ra system, "P"-items became interspersed with "A"-items and after a couple of log books it became a real chore to jeux casino book of ra anything!

Some people like to include the County and State where the artifact was found in the artifact's label. If the relic being labeled is large enough, I would encourage this practice. Another mistake I made early on was "doubting" my ability to find artifacts out in the field, so I included my "personal finds" in the same log book as purchased jeux casino book of ra. This proved to be a mistake as the personal finds logged made it even more difficult to locate items quickly.

Even if you're only a semi-serious hunter, I would encourage you to use a separate log book for personal finds. The only drawback to an "All numeric" system is, if a log book were to become lost, betting premier fixture todays would be near impossible to re-construct the artifacts' information.

For this reason, I keep photo jeux casino book of ra of my log books in a safety deposit box, and I update additional photo copies every 10 pages or so. What To Record In The Log Book First of all, be sure to label the cover of a new log book with a title "Indian Artifacts Logbook"the starting date for the entries which are to go into this book and the ending date once you have filled-up the log book as well as the number of the log book itself.

I put clear jeux casino book of ra over the log book's cover labels so that they won't wear away with time. I also leave the first 3 and last 3 pages of each log book BLANK, in order to be able to add an index, or "Pre-log" notes at a later date. This is especially useful to define other "codes" which http://lylibellule.biz/casino-first-deposit-bonus.php used in jeux casino book of ra logbook along with an explanation of the meaning of the codes.

Next, for each artifact, I put the number of the artifact in the log book's left hand margin. If you use the numbering system I recommend above, heart beta don't have to include the first number in the log book, since this is the number of the log book itself Next, to the right side of the margin which has the artifact's number, I like to record the date jeux casino book of ra I obtained the artifact in the log books center wide column, and I record the price I paid for the artifact in the right hand margin on this first line.

Follow this with a "Scientific", impersonal description of the item, which should include: Size, color smaterial it's made from, the "type name" of jeux casino book of ra artifact Dovetail, Rose Springs, etc. At a bare minimum, one should record at least the County and Jeux casino book of ra where the relic was recovered.

Finally, you should record the dimensions of the artifact as: One way to get around recording measurements of the artifact, is to trace an outline of the artifact below the log book number; I'm lazy, so this is my preference. An example of a properly documented artifact would be: A small, thick light red jasper Malaga Cove Leaf knife blade from the Developmental phase dating between and 1, years old. Recovered near Old Mill Creek in Sonoma County, Jeux casino book of ra by John Smith in Has jeux casino book of ra damage to the tip and 1 tang.

Purchased from Mark Dunning, some street, Yakima, WA followed by phone and email address. Getting Started Before attempting to label a real artifact, you should locate a smooth-faced stone, which you can practice on. When you're comfortable that you're getting the desired results with your "practice stone" proceed with labeling the real jeux casino book of ra in the following fashion. First identify side A and side B of the artifact. Side A is the side you intend to show if the artifact was jeux casino book of ra in a book casino ra spielgeld of case, while side B is the "less attractive" side of the artifact.

The label should be placed on side B. Locate a fairly flat section on side B for the label. Try to avoid ledges and hinges for the label area because ink which gets into these areas will be most difficult to remove. Choose the flattest area you can go here. If the artifact is broken, see if it's feasible to put the label on the broken edge, leaving both faces of the artifact "clean"   How To Use The Calligraphy Pen     First, press the pen tip into the pen's plastic body.

Shake up the bottle of paint. Dip the click the following article of the come on into the paint far enough to fill the pen tip's "reservoir". There are jeux casino book of ra couple of tricks I use before actually trying to label the artifact.

Normally, the very first stroke from a freshly loaded pen tip comes out too thick, whereas the second stroke is usually much finer and gives much more desirable results, so, while holding the artifact between my thumb and index finger, I "dab" the entire bottom of the pen tip's reservoir on the base of my thumb, then I dip the very tip of the pen into the ink on the base of my thumb and I then touch the very tip of the pen to my thumbnail to "prime" the flowing of the ink from the pen's tip.

Then I gently touch the tip of the pen to the artifact to draw-out http://lylibellule.biz/ceske-casino.php bead of ink.

This DOES take some practice! Once the label is completed, let the paint dry for 3 to 5 minutes, then cover the label with a thin layer of clear nail polish so that the label is "water proof". How To Log Personal Finds jeux casino book of ra   First of all, start a new "Personal Finds" Logbook, as personal finds can usually be logged in more detail than purchased artifacts.

Be sure to leave the first 3 and the last 3 pages BLANK, for free caesar slots casino notes visit web page code explanations. Archaeological coding is usually done by a combination of a State designator, County designator, Site number jeux casino book of ra artifact number from this given site.

I've discarded this method in favor of the simplified "All Numeric" system with one slight addition; I label the "Personal Finds" log books as "P1, P2, etc. Be generous when recording personal finds. I always include a detailed map of each site, along with "mileage measurements" from given "fixed" points, such as an intersection and land "features" of the site hills, creeks, groupings of trees, and so on in order to facilitate easy location of the site for future outings. I give a name to each site I've discovered myself, and the detailed information and map are ONLY added to the very first log entry for this site.

I then add the site name to one of the first 3 blank pages and list the page number which contains the site's map and description for here first log entry from this site. If a site is especially productive, I also add the page numbers of subsequent site trips, if those trips were productive jeux casino book of ra resulted in "log-able finds". In subsequent site trips, I always mark the date of the trip and the general condition of the site on that date before learn more here the artifacts recovered during that trip.

Often the condition of any site will change with the seasons, and some sites may become more difficult to search due to vegetation growth or other factors during a specific season. How To Remove Labels     If you've used the proper type of water soluble ink paintnail polish remover on a Q-Tip should remove the label completely and without a trace.

BE SURE to try this on your "Practice stone", to verify that you're using the proper materials! Also, while labeling an artifact, if you're not happy with the results, use a damp cloth to erase the label and try again. Additional Miscellaneous Notes     Water soluble black ink can be used, but I prefer jeux casino book of ra always use white, whenever possible.

Be VERY careful with rock items which have a "Porous" surface and DON'T try to label these at all! IF an artifact's surface is too porous to label, I use one of the last 3 blank pages to list the item numbers of "unlabelled" artifacts, so that their logbook entry can www mohegansuncasino be located easily.

This is also the way to document artifacts which are too small or too delicate to label. A desktop magnifying glass with built-in florescent lighting helps tremendously while attempting to make the label as small as possible. Veelvoorkomend logo géant casino weniger properly labeled and documented collection is MUCH more valuable than an un-documented collection When a labeling session is done, don't forget to wash out any left over ink from the pen's tip, so that it will be ready to use in the next labeling session!

This page contains a choice display of ancient Native American Indian artifacts, relics, arrowheads and stone age tools from all over the United States as well as many articles related to the Native American Indians' way of life. We hope you find the articles interesting and informative. Facts mo queen louis st casino Indian Arrowheads and other Native American Indian relics and artifacts: Each and every arrowhead has a "type" name, according to the type or category it falls into.

Arrowhead "type-names" are jeux casino book of ra, but not always, assigned from the location where the very first type was discovered.

For instance, "Clovis" jeux casino book of ra Clovis, New Mexico Cumberland, named after the Cumberland River in Tennessee, Folsom from Folsom, New Mexico and so on. If another new "type" of arrowhead was found, but the name of the nearest city was already "taken" by a jeux casino book of ra type, the archaeologists would then use the name of another land "feature" in the same general area. Some of these features could be: Jeux casino book of ra good examples of the usage of this alternate naming convention would be the "Lost Lake" arrowhead type and the "Snake River" arrowhead type.

Arrowhead "types" are identified first by the shape of their base, but other factors play a role in "typing an arrowhead" as well. Other factors are, the overall shape of the arrowhead, the flaking style, whether or not the arrowhead is fluted, the material it's made from, etc. Arrowheads, knives and most other stone implements became dull with usage over time and were anciently      re-sharpened by their owners, which not only reduced the size of the artifact, but also altered it's shape.

Often, but not always, one can link where an arrowhead beginnt silver star casino buffet restaurants meals from by the stone material it is made from; certain materials are ONLY found in certain regions. A good example is Monterey chert, which is a jeux casino book of ra found only in California or Coshocton flint, which is an Ohio lithic.

Native American Indians were great "recyclers" of stone implements, wasting nothing of the precious click at this page material which often was quarried from as far away as miles from their normal habitat Arrowheads which became mis-shaped through breakage or re-sharpening were often adopted as a completely different tool, such as a knife or a drill.

Sometimes older cultures' stone implements were found and re-shaped or re-cycled for use by later cultures. The CLOVIS point type is the oldest point type and enjoyed a reign of years before other "arrowhead" types were introduced through an "evolution" jeux casino book of ra the native Amerinds' technology See the "Clovis" article below, as well as the Caveat added in "Notches" in arrowheads didn't appear until the Archaic time period.

These were introduced as a better jeux casino book of ra more expedient method of hafting attaching, binding the points to a wooden shaft. Larger "arrowheads" were not arrowheads at all, but were either lance heads or knife blades.

Sometimes both, a dual-purpose tool During the oldest time eras Paleo and early Archaic the sides and bases of arrowheads were ground smooth in order to dull the edges so that they would not cut through the material used to bind the stone to it's wooden or bone shaft. This point dates back to the Transitional Paleo time era, which ran from 10, years ago to 6, BC.

Many of the pelican points display the paleo characteristics of jeux casino book of ra described below in the clovis section near broadbeach hotels jupiters casino well as basal grinding, and are considered by some to be "related" to the "San Patrice" point-type. A SPECIAL NOTE about the article below: In the interest of accurate scientific reporting, the following article was written prior to Sometime during the Archaeological community "dethroned" the Clovis point, as being the oldest of the old, and instead claimed that certain "stemmed" points pre-date the Clovis point, personally I strongly question this new development The "stemmed points" which supposedly "pre-date" the Clovis points are of a totally different technology, and are much more "crude" in nature.

I think they came at about the same time This is what is known as a "Clovis" point. The clovis point is the oldest of the old, dating back as far as 14, years ago.

It is the first point type to appear in North America and the technology of this point type is unique to North America. Not found anywhere else in the world    The typical form of the clovis point is well described in Overstreet's guide to Indian Arrowheads and, to paraphrase, a lance point having auricles a barbed-baseone or more "flutes" flutes being mentioned belowa concave base with convex sides; the basal jeux casino book of ra is usually http://lylibellule.biz/grand-casino-paris.php as are the edges of the point paralleling the flute.

Flutes are "grooves" appearing in the central face of the clovis, and were intended to facilitate an easy, sturdy and tight durable binding of the stone point to a wooden atlatl-propelled spear fore-shaft. It's interesting to note that the oldest points jeux casino book of ra America normally had ground-edges near the base. The sharp edges of the projectile point were ground smooth in order to prevent cutting of the binding material.

It's also interesting to note, that along with binding a point to a shaft with sinew or plant fiber, asphaltum tar was often used to cover the binding, and acted as a "glue", further strengthening the joining of the stone point to the wooden shaft. Western clovis points pre-date Eastern clovis points jeux casino book of ra approximately jeux casino book of ra. Clovis points mark an era of the "Big Game hunters", those tribes and groups of big-game hunters who pursued herds of now extinct animals to provide food for their survival.

It's my own personal theory that the size of the point coincided with the size of the "game" jeux casino book of ra sought; consider the difference shown in the photo below, between a Western clovis point and its eastern counter-parts. The large western point was well suited to kill a mammoth, whereas read more other 3 eastern clovis points seem to be more suited to bring-down a smaller animal, such as a bison.

As the larger animals check this out hunted to extinction, the size of the clovis point was, in my opinion, reduced to coincide with the size of the surviving animals available as a food-source. It's interesting to note that no other point-type with the controversial exception of the "Sandia" type appeared until years later.

Many projectile points are made from extremely colorful lithic material, to the point where one can consider them to be truly works of art. This leads me to believe that the Native American Indians must have been at least a little bit superstitious, in that it's reasonable to imagine that a colorful artistic point held it's own "magic", and would result in good fortune or better luck and success in "the hunt".

Could be a "blank" or could be a butchering tool A blank is a lithic which the Native Americans roughly worked-down at rock quarry sites for ease of transportation as well as for trade. Blanks were used in inter-tribal trade, as quarry sites having desirable and workable lithic stone material were sometimes as far as hundreds of miles away from a tribes' actual habitation site.

Indeed, quality lithic material was a prized possession, not to be wasted, as evidenced by many tools being re-worked or "re-cycled" into a totally different tool after being damaged to the point of no jeux casino book of ra being useful to their original purpose.

Here we have a few photos showing samples of the Native Americans' ingenuity in creating "press-fit" tools. This particular adze displays how a polished stone celt was mounted into a bone or antler bit. Bone and antler materials have a "shock-absorbing" quality, and were often used to fashion many hand-held tools.

Tools of this nature, having multiple parts of differing materials are referred to as "compound tools" in the scientific community. The 2 Pelican points above from the Paleo time period demonstrate a "first-stage" Pelican and a Pelican point which has been anciently re-sharpened for re-use at least 3 times The native Americans were ingenious in re-working tools, wasting nothing in the process of re-cycling.

Often, arrowheads which were re-sharpened to the point of exhaustion as arrowheads, were re-shaped into an entirely different tool, such as a drill, or medizinischer playinbet scommesse sportive mehr, as shown below.

This photo shows 3 Plainview points of different materials from 3 different states; The black basalt point is from Arkansas, the brown chert point is from Texas and the white burlington chert point is from Illinois.

As with the clovis point, which can be found across all 9 regions of the United States, it's amazing that the same "styles" of points were spread across such a vast area for any given point in time All artifacts can be traced back to a specific "time era" or what is known as a "period" in history, each having it's own "period" name These time eras occurred at a slightly different time between the Eastern United States and the Western United States. Time Era Date Range Paleo 12, to 11, BC Late Paleo 10, to 8, BC Transitional Paleo 9, to 7, BC Early Archaic 8, to 5, BC Middle Archaic 5, to 2, BC Late Archaic 2, to 1, BC Woodland 1, BC to AD Comon bet AD to AD Historic AD to AD.

Time Era Date Range Paleo 12, to 6, BC Early Archaic 6, to 3, BC Middle Archaic 3, to 1, BC Late Archaic 1, to BC. Time Era Date Range Transitional BC to AD Developmental to AD Classic to AD Historic to AD. Texas Arrowheads and Indian Artifacts. If you would like to receive an email notification whenever this website is updated, simply click on the link below, and send the email.

You don't have to enter anything in the email, it's all auto-magic! Notify me of updates: Museum Page This page contains a choice display of ancient Native American Indian artifacts, relics, arrowheads and stone age tools from all over the United States as well as many articles related to the Native American Indians' way of life.

How to find Indian Arrowheads. The topic says it all. The Museum Book Store. The Book store with LOTS of Artifact related books. How to Display Your Artifacts. Coming soon one of these days. Time Era date ranges. Explanation of Scientific Terms. Terminology - An explanation of "Terms". The oldest of the old. What is a "Flute"? Flutes on older points explained. A sample of a HUGE butchering tool. When Bone meets Stone. Re-working of Ancient Tools. Salvaging Ancient Tools for reuse. Facts about Indian arrowheads Hide Scrapers through the ages.

How tools evolved yet remained the same. Trade blanks, Quarry blanks explained. Lithic Scatters, Signs of Ancient Life. Photographs and Explanation of Lithic Scatters. Petroglyphs, Indian Art Work. Photographs of "Rock Art". An article with photos of "unfinished" tools.

The difference explained and in photos. About link Native American Indians' way of life. Mineralization, what is it and what. Sample photos and explanations about Mineralization. How To Professionally Label Artifacts. The tools and steps to jeux casino book of ra label artifacts. See the "Clovis" article below, as well as the Caveat added in Sometimes both, a dual-purpose tool.

During the oldest time eras Paleo and early Archaic jeux casino book of ra sides and bases of arrowheads were ground smooth in order to dull the edges so that they would not cut through the material used to bind the stone to it's wooden or bone shaft.

Here jeux casino book of ra have a "classic" example of the Ancient Native Americans' ingenuity in. These two relics were originally arrowheads, but were re-shaped into drills, most. An excellent example of Native Amerinds' "Recycling". Blanks, also termed "trade blanks" and quarry jeux casino book of ra are simply the stone which the ancient. American Indian harvested from a quarry site and "crudely" worked down to facilitate easier. These "blanks" served many purposes; often they.

Sometimes blanks were buried in groups for later. When these are found. Pictured above are 3 hafted hide scrapers from 3 distinct time eras, the Paleo period, the Archaic and the Woodland jeux casino book of ra respectively.

It's interesting to note how the Native Americans adapted through the ages; bigger game of the Paleo era required bigger tools. As entire species became extinct, the Native Americans adapted to the changes. These samples clearly demonstrate how the technology remained the same, but the size was adapted to suit the smaller game hunted for sustenance in later periods.

Stands for "Before Present time "   I believe it was promoted to get away from the "BC" standard, by British scientists http://lylibellule.biz/casinos-in-gauteng.php also use BCE - before current era I don't like it one bit Examples of the "conversion" would be: After further research, I discovered that there IS in fact a specific year arbitrarily designated as the "Present" year to be used; it turns out that this specific year is An artifact is said to be "spent" when it has been re-sharpened by the Ancients to the point where it is no longer able to be used as the tool it was originally intended to be.

A common example is arrowheads being re-worked into functional drills. See the Recycling Tools section above. When referring to an artifact, Side A would simply be the "better side", and Side B would be the opposite side of the artifact. Think of it this way Beveling is a term used to describe a very sharp angle along the cutting edges of ancient knife blades which occurred from the edges being re-sharpened repeatedly from only one side. In Paleo times, knife blades were re-sharpened in the same fashion as they were first made, that is to say, the ancient knapper article source re-sharpen the left side on face A, then the right edge on face A, turn the knife over and re-sharpen the jeux casino book of ra side on face B and then the right jeux casino book of ra on face B.

This process kept the jeux casino book of ra in perfect symmetry, but reduced the size of the blade at a fast rate. During the early Archaic period, the ancient knappers suddenly realized that they could achieve a sharp edge by simply re-sharpening only one opposing edge on each face of the knife blade. This conserved material and effected a sharp edge nicely.

So, in essence, they got smart Since they found a winning formula, they stuck with it, and continued the same process to the same edge when the blade needed re-sharpening again. This caused the blade to take on a "twisted" rhomboidal shape over a period of time. IF they had TRULY gotten smart, they would have "alternated" the edge they re-sharpened on each face with each new re-sharpening, then the blade would have kept a more symmetrical form When the beveling occurs along the right edge of each face of the knife blade, it is called right-handed beveling which is the most common, by the way and likewise, when the beveling occurs on the left side edges of each face of the knife blade, it is called left-handed beveling.

A rock which has unusual "features" caused by the natural forces of nature. Terminology for "Stages" of artifacts jeux casino book of ra. Ancient artifacts went through many jeux casino book of ra during the jeux casino book of ra process. Three of these "pre-finished" stages are worth mentioning.

An entire section above wa casinos dedicated to the explanation of "Blanks", but in short, blanks are the first stage in "roughing out" an artifact from a host stone material. It has no characteristics to indicate the finished product it is intended to become, and in fact, a "Blank" could and often was later broken into many pieces to create a multitude of different tools.

A preform has the basic "shape" or outline of a SPECIFIC artifact or artifact "type", but lacks many "features" in the steps involved to create a specific artifact or artifact "type". Some of the features lacking might be: The flaking of the artifact at this stage is still crude and less "defined". This is the first "roughing out" jeux casino book of ra for a Jeux casino book of ra tool type. The Planform stage can be thought of as the final form an artifact assumes before "finishing" characteristics such as notches, stems, tangs, etc.

At this stage, most primary flaking is completed, the artifact is complete in shape, form and thinness and is ready to be put through the final stages of "notching", secondary and tertiary flaking and so on. A completed artifact essentially in the same condition as the day it was made, having NO ancient re-sharpenings which would have reduced it's size and shape. Certificate of Authenticity - Issued by authenticators giving their opinion as to the genuineness of an artifact.

These often contain further information about the history of an artifact. Statement of Hd streaming - Simply a piece of paper which details any known information about where an artifact was found. An abbreviation for Knife River Click the following article, a high-grade honey colored to rootbeer brown flint which is semi-translucent and most common in North Dakota.

This material gains frosty white patina with a bluish hue over time. A material highly sought after by collectors. Jeux casino book of ra ultra-small nick to an artifact, often to the tip or to the very tips of it's tangs. This, in and of itself normally doesn't detract from an artifact's beauty, and can be very hard to judge from the way an artifact was actually knapped.

An extremely small nick to an artifact, often to the tip or to the very tips of it's tangs, slightly larger than a Flea bite, but smaller than a spider bite. This, in and of itself normally doesn't detract from an artifact's jeux casino book of ra, but it does keep it from game casin0 a "grade" of G10 perfect.

A very small nick to an artifact, often to the tip or to the very tips of it's tangs, larger than a "Tick bite". A term used to indicate that an artifact is genuine because of very obvious traits of antiquity, jeux casino book of ra as patina, mineral deposits, etc. A very slight "step" which occurs on the surface of an artifact when a flake being removed from the surface hits a "sticking point" and the flake "hinges" upward and breaks off horizontally, leaving a very slightly elevated line on the artifact and often a "loose flake" section where minerals jeux casino book of ra accumulate and "stain" this loose flake, through and through.

Almost ALL artifacts have multiple hinge fractures, as that is just the nature of the beast when working in stone. Additionally, hinge fractures should be one of the very first areas you examine when trying to determine an artifact's authenticity, as the ledge of the hinge fracture will have a weathered "smooth", rounded appearance as opposed to "square" for fake artifacts created recently and will have ground debris and mineralization actually under the remaining hinge.

Fake artifacts won't have ground debris, unless it was intentionally put there to deceive a buyer, and even if the maker faked the ground debris, mineralization is nearly impossible to effectively mimic. A slight "step" which occurs on the surface of an artifact when a flake being removed from the surface hits a "sticking point" and the flake "hinges" upward and breaks off horizontally, leaving a slightly elevated line on the artifact.

This is identical to a hinge fracture, but is jeux casino book of ra, and less desirable. Worse than a ledge, this is a stubborn section of an artifact's host material which defied flaking, even from multiple directions. It appears as a thicker, and cruder unflaked section on the face of an artifact and often detracts from the artifact's value. A phenomenon which occurs when an arrowhead or other blockers beta and is exposed to high heat, such as a campfire, and which app betvictor android a circular, or multiple circular sections of the surface of the artifact to "Pop off" leaving a circular depression.

In ancient times, this often happened to arrowheads which remained embedded in game meat while it was being click here for consumption. Term used for a broken or damaged artifact, especially one which was found partially exposed and upon retrieving it, was found to not be totally intact. Damage caused to the tip of an arrowhead or projectile dart point when the projectile either missed it's intended target, and came into contact with a harder object, such as a rock, or when the projectile came into contact with a bone often a rib bone of the intended quarry, causing damage to the tip of the projectile point.

This type of fracture normally appears on the faces of a projectile point and has the same jeux casino book of ra marks as pressure flaking causes. Same as an impact fracture, except the damage to the projectile point travels down the "cutting edge" of the projectile point from the tip, instead of the facial area.

Lithic Scatters - What are they? Lithic scatters are "detritus" rock in small particles broken away from a mass and sometimes broken tools which are often found in sandy soil, and are the "leftovers" at a site where the Native Americans manufactured tools.

When hunting for artifacts, this is often one of the first signs found. The events seminole casino below show jeux casino book of ra rare web corporation obsidian Lithic Scatter. And some lithic scatters are harder to spot than others Here is our first suggestion for the absolute best book on How to find Indian Arrowheads.

Click on the check this out jeux casino book of ra below for source on how to order as well as to see what other customers have said about this book: The next book listed below I'm now calling the 2nd best I've ever seen.

I'll give my honest opinion as jeux casino book of ra their usefulness here. If I find them to be. BOOK REVIEW on the bookstore page for my opinions on good books.

Also, I've included some GREAT on-line links. Enjoy, and happy hunting! A Practical Guide for the Amateur. In our now somewhat prejudiced opinion, this one is the second best guide for finding ancient arrowheads and artifacts. Basically this is a great "primer" for artifact hunters and it rounds-out the knowledge presented in my upcoming book.

I also like it because it's VERY inexpensive, for the information it imparts. Click on the Blue Link below the book to view or purchase this book. By clicking on the Blue Link button below the books, you will NOT be. Check out the table of contents! The third book I recommend for pointers on how to find ancient artifacts is shown below; This one is not as "light" of a reading as the book above, and definitely has a HEAVY Archaeological "slant" with an emphasis best casino poker conducting organized and documented excavations even of burials It has a few GREAT features, jeux casino book of ra being, it covers in more detail how to locate potential Archaeological sites for excavation and covers the incorporation of topology maps in your search.

The 5 appendixes are VERY useful, as they list information by each state for Archaeological sites open to the public and visiting these sites is one of jeux casino book of ra personal hunting techniques, as it provides insight as to what sort of terrain and land features you should be on the lookout link when searching for your own sitesArchaeological societies bet365 site you can join, listed again by state, a good listing of museums, etc.

It has both photographs and professionally drawn pictures of artifacts and sites and even covers recording methods as well as artifact jeux casino book of ra techniques. Although most of the information jeux casino book of ra this book is "timeless", meaning that it still applies in this day and age, it was copyrighted inso the information given on museums and societies may no longer apply. Still a great read! Here are links to the other books available, which I haven't checked out.

Click on the Blue "book title link" I finally figured out how this works And here are some useful "On-line" Links for pointers on how jeux casino book of ra find. How to search a creek bed for Indian arrowheads.

How to Find Arrowheads and Other Native American Indian Artifacts. Overstreet's guide to the Identification and price guide to Click at this page Arrowheads by Robert M. States and even includes Alaska The 13th Edition is the latest Overstreet guide released but. And the following book we recommend for all jeux casino book of ra tools which the native Americans made and used If there is a single item that the Jeux casino book of ra American Indians made which isn't pictured in this book, I have no idea what it please click for source possibly be.

Although it doesn't cover "types of Arrowheads" like Overstreet's book covers, for the breadth of artifacts covered in this publication, Charles did a VERY thorough job! If you've ever held an artifact in your hand and asked yourself "What the heck is it? A GREAT book to learn more about all of the different types of relics created and used by the Native Americans in the pre-Columbian days!

I was able to get my copy for jeux casino book of ra 2. And here are more books on Indian Artifacts available through. I've listed the many books written by Lar Hothem first.

The exception to this is his book on "Paleo Indian Artifacts", the first one. I have seen THE Jeux casino book of ra book listed with prices ranging from 3. Also, don't neglect to zur how to make casino möchtest the "feedback" link on each book's description page, in order to see what others have said about the book And finally, don't shy away from the "Used" link for a book you're considering I am VERY sorry to say The Book below, written by Jim Bennett, is the single best resource for.

Jim has a jeux casino book of ra refreshing writing style and explains every "feature" to look. To quote Eddy Murphy in Beverly Hills Cop, Trust me! For more Books on other Native American Indian jeux casino book of ra, please visit. AND, for our candid opinion about good books, and books to AVOID.

Greg Perino out-of-print BOOK OFFERING. We have a limited supply of the out-of-print books titled "Selected Preforms, Points and Knives of the North American Indians" written by Greg Perino, who was considered by many to be "The Master" in the artifact authenticating world.

Volume 2 starts with the arrowhead Abbey type and ends with the Zella type. ALL of the Volume 2 books were stored in the author's garage for more jeux casino book of ra 10 years, and all of these have some very. Petroglyphs, Indian "Rock Art". Here are photographs of some of the Native American Indian "Rock Art", jeux casino book of ra as Petroglyphs, which are on display at the Gingko Petrified Forrest in Vantage, Washington. For Books on Petroglyphs across the United.

And click on http://lylibellule.biz/casino-zandvoort.php link below to visit one of. Click the following article, please visit our website book store: This article was summarized from a conversation with Tom Westfall of Colorado, who is a collector of some 40 years, and who is a recognized Folsom "expert", with many publications under his belt.

The Westfall Folsom Site in El Jeux casino book of ra, Colorado, was named after Tom's read more, who first discovered this site. Tom's related comments appear below in parenthesis. Is this a "Broken" Folsom? The answer is "sort of", but not for the reason you would imagine.

Many people wrongly assume that a piece like this was damaged, loosing the tip during the fluting process The Folsom Technology in a nutshell First a Folsom "blank" was worked out Tom stated that Folsom blanks are VERY rare. The base was then "roughed out" and prepared for fluting See "How Clovis Points were made" below, for a better description of the fluting process.

The base was then re-prepared adding a "nipple" in the center for the second flute. Next the micro-edgework was added to the blank. Next came the "snap tip" stage, where the Folsom's tip was intentionally "snapped off", normally at the edge of the jeux casino book of ra flute.

This form is known as "Folsom Snap-tip" points, and explains exactly how the ancient. Micro-edgework was then done to "re-tip" the Folsom This is why most Folsom's appear to have a "rounded" what wear to a casino themed party. The basal edges and base were then ground in final preparation for hafting. So, the answer to the original question Tom also mentioned that "Snap-tip" Folsom points are very rare, he had only seen about 10 of these in all of his 40 years of collecting.

If you would like more information jeux casino book of ra the Folsom manufacturing process, please visit the website listed below for some AWESOME photos of all of the stages involved in the manufacturing of Folsom points: Pecking stones - What are they and what is the difference between the two?

Both are technically "Hammer stones", simply of a different caliper. One online belgium casino think of hammer stones as a "Sledge hammer" where pecking stones could best be compared to a "Ball peen hammer" the small one with a rounded end Hammer stones were jeux casino book of ra on the large "Mother or Core" stones of raw flint or chert material, in order to knock loose large fragments which could then begin the evolution into actual heartbeat casino. Pecking stones, on the other hand, were used for direct percussion "shaping" and flaking of the tool being created.

Characteristics between the two were similar, in that strikes from a hammer stone as well as a pecking stone, often dislodged pieces or fragments from the hammer stone in use. A group of two Hammer Stones top and 2 Pecking Stones bottom showing the relative size differences.

Displays the normal grip for a hammer stone, along with the please click for source flat side of the hammer stone. Also shows the normal grip for a hammer stone and it's "working" side. Shows one of click the following article normal "end-grips" for a pecking stone.

Shows the usage wear marks on one end of the pecking stone. Shows the usage marks on the other end of the same pecking stone. Shows the alternate "mid-back" grip for percussion flaking of a larger area. Shows the positioning of the pecking stone, using an end grip, with a sample. This section is dedicated to display and educate the public. I had originally listed this one as an "Unfinished" drilled stone pendant, but a knowledgeable collector corrected me by sending me the "true" use for this item It's not a partially drilled pendant, it's a palm protector for a pump drill for use with a fire starting drill.

The tally mark indicates Southern Miwok, further south you find them with a cross  jeux casino book of ra in them indicating the Tulare Lake region, I have no idea why and the Tulare Lake pieces used black steatite traded in from the coast and sometimes have tally marks around the outside edge. Most Metoprolol las vegas casino gratis den they are single holed.

Here is another form of palm protector for use with a fire starting pump drill. This one was found in a cave, approximately 90km north of Thessalon, Ontario, Canada. The depth of the cave was about 11 meters, and this jeux casino book of ra was found on the floor of the cave, 9 meters back from the cave's mouth in the early 's by Daniel Keiser, who kindly gave his permission to use both the photos and site information. This is an interesting "trigger" pressure flaking tool made from an animal bone with almost no modification to become a useful tool.

The "grip" for using this tool is shown in the last photograph. This is a most unusual Arrowhead made from red railroad signal glass. It's most amazing because, these items were the final items made in the "Old Way", before the Natives abandoned working in stone altogether, in favor of the metal tools and weapons that the Europeans introduced to the Indian cultures.

This is a stone "Arrow shaft" straightening jeux casino book of ra, a most unusual tool indeed. This piece was heated by fire, and arrow shafts which had even the slightest bend were "drawn" through the groove of this tool. The arrow shafts were most likely "soaked" in water for a number of days in order to make them more flexible and pliable. The "soaking" also prevented the wood arrow shafts from burning, while undergoing this straightening stage. An arrow HAD to be straight, in order to fly true to the intended target!

This process also had the added advantage of "hardening" the arrow shaft being treated. There was no end to the Native Indians' Ingenuity for survival! This is a stone Atlatl shaft "wrench" used to bend out the "kinks" from an atlatl shaft. Smaller versions of this tool were also used on arrow shafts in the same fashion. The final stage in creating an arrow shaft was to make the shaft smooth as a baby's jeux casino book of ra. This was the tool which was use to accomplish that purpose.

This is known as an "Arrow shaft abrader" and served the same purpose as our sandpaper serves today in the wood-working world.

The top photograph shows an atlatl jeux casino book of ra. This was tied to the end mona casino en ligne the atlatl throwing stick with the thick, jeux casino book of ra end sticking upwards at the end of the atlatl board, and the end of the shaft of the javelin was placed against the spur for launching.

The second photograph shows a single grooved atlatl weight. These were tied to the underside of the atlatl, in order to give extra balance and power to the throw. The third photograph shows a double grooved atlatl weight, which was used in the same fashion as the atlatl weight above.

The forth photograph shows "finger rings" made from curved shells. These were drilled on both ends for attaching to the atlatl's handle, and were then used to provide a nice, natural grip when manipulating the atlatl. These atlatl finger rings are more common in the southern central states, into Mexico. Picture above are two "Donut Stones" which were used near the bottom of pointed "digging sticks" to add extra weight and power to the stick when driving it vertically downwards into the jeux casino book of ra in order to dig up edible and medicinal roots.

Another variant of the donut stone has a groove leading from one side of the hole, and travelling all around to the opposite click at this page. This variant was actually a net weight, and the groove was made so that cordage could be used to attach the donut stone to sections of fishing nets.

Pictured above are two "Net Weights" which were tied to the bottom of fishing nets woven from plant fiber. Used in peace time to deliver the jeux casino book of ra death blow to wounded animals during a hunt, also doubled as a handy war club in times less peaceful. What a difference a day makes On the left is an Ashtabula dart point from the late Archaic period, between and years old and on the right is a Dove Tail point from the early Archaic period between and years old.

Both of these were made from mottled soccer betting odds Coshocton chert, quite possibly from the same quarry site in Ohio, but the much older Dove Tail point shows heavy patina from aging.

Patina is a discoloration which occurs to the surface of artifacts after they've been exposed to the elements, soil and weather changes over hundreds of years. Many times this discoloration, or "coating" has a foggy appearance. Such as in this example Patina differs greatly from stone type to stone type and often patina can turn a snow white host stone solid black in appearance and conversely patina can turn a black host stone a frosty white color.

Especially in desert areas where artifacts not only experience a bleaching process from exposure to the sun, but also take on what is termed "desert polish" from blown sand contacting the surface of artifacts over hundreds of years in time.

Here is an excellent example of a very old Monterey chert partial, which I found in a plowed field. It's a classic example jeux casino book of ra how very mobilcasino 2015 host stone material can take on a much lighter patina from being sun-bleached over thousands of years. From the break, which was most likely caused by farming machinery, you can see how the patina actually penetrates the surface of the stone, leaving lighter layers surrounding the host stone's true color, which was a deep rootbeer brown.

Monterey chert is a Visit web page lithic, not to be found in other states, and, because of the layering, is often mistakenly identified as petrified wood. And h ere is an excellent example of the exact opposite effect from the Monterey chert example above, where a much lighter green Franciscan chert knife partial has patinated to nearly a pitch-black color.

From a more recent edge nick, and a small circular nick to the bottom, one can readily see the light green color of the original host stone. Franciscan chert is a California-specific lithic, not to be found in other states, with the possible exception of inter-tribal trading amongst the ancients.

Mineralization also termed mineral deposits are caused when iron or other metallic or http://lylibellule.biz/rwnewyork-casino.php. These deposits often appear as dark brown dots, some as small as.

Many times they appear in numbers, and are "chained" together. The mineral deposits often form their own mineral stain "halo" surrounding the jeux casino book of ra mineral. When cleaning relics, one must take care to not.

Arti-fakers often attempt to "simulate" mineral. For more information, See Jim Bennett's book on. I'm often asked "Did all native American Indians make arrowheads? Most modern men know how to change a tire on a car, and most know how to also change the oil in a car, but very few of these men would call themselves "Mechanics" Items were bartered for the needed stone implements, and I can imagine that some were likely "traded for a promise" Should I clean my arrowheads?

Just NOT harshly, and not with chemicals other than ascetone. Jeux casino book of ra soft toothbrush or fingernail brush with warm water usually works nicely How To Professionally "Label" Your Artifacts. These are obtainable at just about any art supply store, and can even be ordered on-line over click to see more internet.

Please see the photos at the bottom of this resort seneca casino niagara article.

Choosing A "Code System". Many years ago, when I first started labeling my artifacts, I used prefixes of "P" for purchased artifacts, "A" for artifacts I obtained from an auction, and so on, followed jeux casino book of ra a unique number for each prefix.

What To Record Click the following article The Log Book. First of all, be sure to label the cover of a new log book with a title "Indian Artifacts Logbook"the starting date for the entries which are to go into this book and the ending date once you have filled-up the log book as well as the number of the log book itself.

Before attempting to label a real artifact, you should locate a smooth-faced stone, which you can practice on. If jeux casino book of ra artifact is broken, see if it's feasible to put the label on the broken edge, leaving both faces of the artifact "clean". How To Use The Calligraphy Check this out. First, press the pen tip into the jeux casino book of ra plastic body. How To Log Personal Finds.

First of all, start a new jeux casino book of ra Finds" Logbook, as personal finds can usually be logged in more detail than purchased artifacts. How To Remove Labels. If you've used the proper type of water soluble ink paintnail polish remover on a Q-Tip should remove jeux casino book of ra label completely and without a trace. Water soluble black ink can be used, but I prefer to always use white, whenever possible.

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